Dietary Analysis & Evaluation

Dietary Analysis & Evaluation

Author: Benjamin R. Holmes

(NOT PEER-REVIEWED LITERATURE)


Introduction

Diet is a major factor when it comes to health, wellbeing and disease risk and diet can be assessed using many different methods that have varying levels of efficacy. The gold standard for diet assessment is the weighed food diary, coupled with nutritional analysis, via a software application. This involves weighing and measuring food and drink consumption over time and inputting that data into a nutritional analysis software that draws upon databases that hold nutritional information on common food and drink products. An average of each nutrient intake based off the data inputted can then be compared to DRVs. This will allow dietary intake to be assessed of how close it is to those DRVs and for health status to be understood. This can be used to explain health issues or symptoms being experienced or to aid setting up an improved diet that can be helpful as preventative measures to reduce future disease risk. This report will look at a participant’s consumption and analyse and evaluate that against DRVs and the current literature, then outline nutritional recommendations for the maintenance and/or improvement of health.

A questionnaire was filled out by the participant to aid in the evaluation and proposed improvements of the diet (Appendix A), as well as determining the participants energy requirements from biometric data measured using a Nokia bathroom scale and Myotape body measuring tape and inputting that data into Nutritics (Appendix B). The method of weighed food diary was carried out by the participant for a duration of 1 week, every item of food was weighed using a kitchen scale in grams and all liquids consumed were measured using a generic measuring jug in ml and it was logged via an app Libro that automatically generating a food log onto the Nutritics software  that displayed the average nutrient intakes for that 1 week (Appendix B).

 

Table 1 – Participants biometric data derived from questionnaire (Appendix A) filled out by the client and calculated by Nutritics software (Appendix B) *Calculated via Nutritics built-in formulas. **RMR calculated using the Mifflin St. Jeor 1990 energy calculation formula via Nutritics. 

Age

29

Bodyweight

83.5kg

Height

1.78m

Gender

Male

BMI*

26.4

Waist Circumference

84cm

RMR**

1808kcal

PAL*

1.55

EER*

2802kcal

 

The report that was generated highlighted some areas of improvement that can be addressed to achieve a more complete diet, but there are also some aspects of the participant personally and their diet that do not exactly align with governmental guidelines that require justification. The participants BMI (Table 1.) falls within the overweight classification (Table 2.) which would normally put them at an increased level of co-morbidity risk, but the participants waist circumference is considerably lower than the value for males where increased metabolic complications occur (WHO/FAO, 2003). They also perform resistance training on a regular basis (see Appendix A) and both suggest that their higher BMI is due to having a higher level of LBM than the average individual.

 

Table 2. BMI classification with related co-morbidity risk (WHO/FAO, 2003).

Classification

BMI *kg/m2)

Risk of co-morbidities

Underweight

<18.5

Low (other health risk)

Healthy weight

18.5-24.9

Average

Overweight

25-29.9

Increased

Obesity Class I

30-34.9

Moderate

Obesity Class II

35-39.9

Severe

Obesity Class III

40+

Very Severe

 

The participants average total energy intake (seen in Figure 1) was 342.8kcal lower than the EER but this aligns with the participants goals and therefore does not require adjustment.

Figure 1. A pie chart showing the participants average macronutrient ratios and average total energy intake.

The RNI for protein intake for an adult is 0.75g/kg/d (Ashwell, 1991) which gives the participant a recommended intake of 62.63g/d, this is almost exactly 3 times less than what the participant is consuming (Table 3). This level of protein intake could be considered high, but it has not been shown in the current literature to cause any health implications when the individual is healthy. A study by Martin, Armstrong and Rodriguez, (2005) showed there was no detrimental effects of high protein intake on kidney function in health individuals over an extended period. Furthermore, when an individual performs regular resistance training their nitrogen requirements increases, therefore less protein consumed would be excreted as more of it is being utilised. A one-year crossover study by Antonio et al., (2016) showed that in resistance-trained men there was no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function with a protein intake of ~2.51–3.32 g/kg/d. Also, many studies and reviewers have shown protein intakes of between 1.2-2.2 g/kg/d are required to prevent lean body mass and maintain a positive nitrogen balance in resistant trained individuals (Lemon, 2000; Phillips, 2004, 2006; Phillips and Van Loon, 2011; Phillips, Moore and Tang, 2007; Slater and Phillips, 2011; Tarnopolsky, 2008; Tipton, 2008; Tipton and Wolfe, 2004; Wilson and Wilson, 2006), also protein intake requirements can be even higher when in a calorie deficit, like in the case of the participant (Celejowa and Homa, 1970; Helms et al., 2014a; 2014b).

 

Table 3. Macronutrient intake analysis including saturated fat and sugars. 

 

Protein

Fat

Saturated Fat

Carbohydrate

Sugars

Intake (g)

186.1

68.2

21.6

275.2

96.9

g/kg bodyweight

2.2

0.8

0.3

3.3

1.2

kcal

744

614

195

1101

388

kcal %

30.3%

25.0%

7.9%

44.8%

15.8%

The participants total fat intake is 10% lower than is recommended in the COMA report (Ashwell, 1991) and their omega 3 intake does not fall above the lower limit value shown in Table 4. Omega 3 is an EFA and this current level of intake needs to be addressed to ensure the participant is achieving nutritional adequacy, deficiency in omega 3 has been shown to increase the risk of CHD (Danaei et al., 2011; Mozaffarian and Rimm, 2006) and pro-inflammatory markers (Calder, 2010; Simopoulos, 2002). The participant has stated in the questionnaire that they do not consume fish or any seafood (Appendix A), so supplementation of 1000mg of fish oil instead of a plant-based omega 3 would put the participant well beyond the lower limit value whilst ensuring adequate levels of EPA/DHA, which are the more active forms of omega 3 and are poorly converted from the inactive form (ALA) found mostly in plant sources (Gerster, 1998). This would also limit saturated fat intake whilst achieving adequate levels of omega 3 and overall reduce any potential disease risk.  

 

Table 4. Lipid intake and analysis. Nutrients in RED fall below the DRVs

Item

Unit

Avg. Daily Intake

RNI

Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Saturated Fat

g

21.6

 

 

35.0

Monounsaturated fat

g

25.7

41.4

 

 

cis-Mono

g

7.8

 

 

 

Polyunsaturated fat

g

13.7

 

6.5

31.8

Omega3(n-3)

g

0.5

 

0.6

 

Omega6(n-6)

g

7.5

 

3.2

 

cis-Poly

g

4.8

 

 

 

Trans-fatty acids

g

0.7

 

 

6.4

Cholesterol

mg

977.4

 

 

 

 

Due to the participants lack of fish and seafood in their diet, their vitamin D intake is also below the DRV (Table 5) which classes them as being deficient in this nutrient, and because they derive most of their vitamin D from eggs (3/d). A recommendation of either fortified milk or a vitamin D3 supplement would be required to reach the DRVs required, without increasing saturated fat. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with increased levels or mortality (Autier and Gandini, 2007; Melamed et al., 2008) so ensuring adequate levels, especially in the winter months is vital for optimal health. The average daily intake of vitamin K1 is slightly below the RNI, deficiency in K1 can cause problems with clotting and excessive bleeding (Schwalfenberg, 2017) and although their levels are not dangerously low, the participant should think about favouring green cruciferous vegetables over more starchy alternatives when putting together meals.   

 

Table 5. Vitamin intake and analysis. Nutrients in RED fall below or above the DRVs

Item

Unit

Avg. Daily Intake

RNI

Min

Max

Lower Limit

Vitamin A (ret eq)

ug

2523.8

700.0

 

 

300.0

Retinol

ug

329.9

 

 

 

 

Carotene

ug

12762.8

 

 

 

 

Vitamin D

ug

8.3

10.0

 

 

 

Vitamin E

mg

19.4

 

 

 

4.0

Vitamin K 1

ug

65.1

83.5

 

 

 

Thiamine (B1)

mg

2.9

1.0

 

 

0.2

Riboflavin (B2)

mg

2.2

1.3

 

 

0.8

Niacin total (B3)

mg

74.3

18.9

 

 

12.6

Niacin

mg

39.6

 

 

 

 

Tryptophan

mg

2412.5

 

 

 

 

Pantothenic Acid (B5)

mg

9.9

Range:

3.0

7.0

 

Vitamin B 6

mg

3.3

2.8

 

 

2.0

Folic Acid (B9)

ug

349.8

200.0

 

 

100.0

Vitamin B 12

ug

9.4

1.5

 

 

1.0

Biotin (B7)

ug

80.2

Range:

10.0

200.0

 

Vitamin C

mg

199.7

40.0

 

 

10.0

 

Pantothenic acid intake is above the max range of RNI, this is not a cause of concern as and upper limit has not been established in humans. There has only been reports of mild intestinal distress or diarrhoea with intakes of > 10g/d (Chawla and Kvarnberg, 2014).

Every other aspect of the participants diet was nutritionally complete, Figure 2 shows their average daily intake of fibre (31.7g/d), which is beyond the RNI of 30g/d and that their free sugar intake (2.4g/d) was way below the upper limit value of 35.8g/d (Figure 3). Also, their alcohol consumption was 0 and they drank an average of 3 litres of water a day (see Appendix D). 

 

 

Figure 2. A bar graph to show the average daily intake of fibre compared to the RNI (data derived from table in Appendix D)

 

Figure 3. A column graph to show the average daily intake of free sugars compared to the the upper limit value, expressed as a percentage (data derived from table in Appendix D).

 

The Mineral intake was also adequate, all values were beyond the RNI without reaching upper limits for toxicity, especially sodium (1857.1mg) see Figure 4 – (A).

Figure 4. Bar charts to show the difference between the participants average daily intake and RNI of all minerals. (A) – Dotted red rectangle indicates the upper limit of sodium -2400mg (data derived from table in Appendix D).

The participants diet overall is above average compared to most of the population, but it does fall short when it comes to lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Due to not consuming any fish or seafood in their diet there is the inevitable holes that present themselves in those essential nutrients that the food group they’re avoiding provides. An introduction of fish and more green cruciferous vegetables and/or the appropriate supplementation will quickly resolve these deficiencies. Protein intake is higher than the average individual, but due to the lifestyle and goals of the participant this level or protein is not a cause of concern and is actually a necessity for them to be able to achieve their goals and live the life they are wanting to live.  

 

References

Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Silver, T., Vargas, L., Tamayo, A., Buehn, R. and Peacock, C. (2016). A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2016, pp.1-5.

Ashwell, M. (1991). The COMA Report on Dietary Reference Values. Nutrition Bulletin, 16(3), pp.132-135.

Autier, P. and Gandini, S. (2007). Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med..

Calder, P. (2010). Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. Nutrients, 2(3), pp.355-374.

Celejowa, I. and Homa, M. (1970). Food Intake, Nitrogen and Energy Balance in Polish Weight Lifters, during a Training Camp. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 12(5), pp.259-274.

Chawla, J. and Kvarnberg, D. (2014). Hydrosoluble vitamins. Handb Clin Neurol.

Danaei, G., Ding, E., Mozaffarian, D., Taylor, B., Rehm, J., Murray, C. and Ezzati, M. (2011). Correction: The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors. PLoS Medicine, 8(1).

Gerster, H. (1998). Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)?. Int J Vitam Nutr Res.

Helms, E., Aragon, A. and Fitschen, P. (2014a). Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), p.20.

Helms, E., Zinn, C., Rowlands, D. and Brown, S. (2014b). A Systematic Review of Dietary Protein during Caloric Restriction in Resistance Trained Lean Athletes: A Case for Higher Intakes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24(2), pp.127-138.

Kennel, K., Drake, M. and Hurley, D. (2010). Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults: When to Test and How to Treat. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(8), pp.752-758.

Lemon, P. (2000). Beyond the Zone: Protein Needs of Active Individuals. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 19(sup5), pp.513S-521S.

Martin, W., Armstrong, L. and Rodriguez, N. (2005). Dietary protein intake and renal function. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2(1), p.25.

Melamed, M., Michos, E., Post, W. and Astor, B. (2008). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and the Risk of Mortality in the General Population. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 63(12), pp.781-782.

Mozaffarian, D. and Rimm, E. (2006). Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health. JAMA, 296(15), p.1885.

Phillips, S. (2004). Protein requirements and supplementation in strength sports. Nutrition, 20(7-8), pp.689-695.

Phillips, S. (2006). Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to metabolic advantage. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31(6), pp.647-654.

Phillips, S. and Van Loon, L. (2011). Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), pp.S29-S38.

Phillips, S., Moore, D. and Tang, J. (2007). A Critical Examination of Dietary Protein Requirements, Benefits, and Excesses in Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(s1), pp.S58-S76.

Schwalfenberg, G. (2017). Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2017, pp.1-6.

Simopoulos, A. (2002). Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(6), pp.495-505.

Slater, G. and Phillips, S. (2011). Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: Sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), pp.S67-S77.

Tarnopolsky, M. (2008). Building muscle: nutrition to maximize bulk and strength adaptations to resistance exercise training. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(2), pp.67-76.

Tipton, K. (2008). Protein for adaptations to exercise training. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(2), pp.107-118.

Tipton, K. and Wolfe, R. (2004). Protein and amino acids for athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(1), pp.65-79.

WHO/FAO (2003). DIET, NUTRITION AND THE PREVENTION OF CHRONIC DISEASES. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneva.

Wilson, J. and Wilson, G. (2006). Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 3(1), p.7.

 

Appendices

Appendix A Participant questionnaire

Age: 29

Gender: Male

Bodyweight: 83.5kg

Height: 1.78m

Waist Circumference: 84cm

Occupational Activity Level: Moderately Active

Exercise Activity Level: MODERATE - 3 days/week hard or 5 days/week light

Type of exercise: Resistance training/free weights

Dietary limitations or preferences: No fish or seafood

Goals: Lose fat

 

Appendix B Analysis software and measurement tools

Salter kitchen scales and ½ litre Pyrex measuring jug


Image of the measuring tools used by the participant to produce the weighed food diary

 

 

Nokia bathroom scales & Myotape body measuring tape

Image of tools used to obtain bodyweight, height and waist circumference data from participant.

Nutritics Nutrition Analysis Software 

LIBRO App 

 

Appendix C Weighed food diary

Monday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

80

g

Raisins

36

g

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Beef, mince, raw, extra lean

125

g

Tomatoes, canned, whole contents

100

g

Beans, red kidney, canned in water, re-heated, drained

52

g

Rice, white, long grain, easy cook, boiled in unsalted water

200

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

Tuesday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

80

g

Raisins

36

g

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Beef, mince, raw, extra lean

125

g

Tomatoes, canned, whole contents

100

g

Beans, red kidney, canned in water, re-heated, drained

52

g

Rice, white, long grain, easy cook, boiled in unsalted water

200

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

Wednesday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Wholemeal Wrap (2)

120

g

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Spinach, baby, raw

40

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Beef, sirloin steak, raw, lean

160

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

Thursday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

80

g

Raisins

36

g

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Beef, mince, raw, extra lean

125

g

Tomatoes, canned, whole contents

100

g

Beans, red kidney, canned in water, re-heated, drained

52

g

Rice, white, long grain, easy cook, boiled in unsalted water

200

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

 

Friday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

80

g

Raisins

36

g

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Beef, mince, raw, extra lean

125

g

Tomatoes, canned, whole contents

100

g

Beans, red kidney, canned in water, re-heated, drained

52

g

Rice, white, long grain, easy cook, boiled in unsalted water

200

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

Saturday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Wholemeal Wrap (2)

120

g

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Spinach, baby, raw

40

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Beef, sirloin steak, raw, lean

160

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

 

Sunday

Breakfast

Amount

Unit

Scrambled Eggs (3)

180

g

Bread, brown, average

37

g

Black pudding fried in sunflower oil

60

g

Butter, salted

7

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Mid Morning

 

 

Apples, eating, raw, flesh and skin

174

g

Kiwi fruit, flesh and seeds

60

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Lunch

 

 

Wholemeal Wrap (2)

120

g

Chicken, breast, grilled without skin, meat only

150

g

Spinach, baby, raw

40

g

Mid Afternoon

 

 

Oranges, flesh only

160

g

Whey protein isolate powder

30

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Dinner

 

 

Beef, sirloin steak, raw, lean

160

g

Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled in unsalted water

90

g

Sweet potato, baked

200

g

Tap Water

750

ml

Before Bed

 

 

Oat flakes, rolled

60

g

Yogurt, greek, plain, 0% fat

150

g

 

 

Appendix D Data used for the Figures 1, 2, 3 & 4

 

Item

Unit

Avg. Daily Intake

RNI

Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Sodium

mg

1857.1

1600.0

575.0

2400.0

Potassium

mg

4631.8

3500.0

2000.0

 

Chloride

mg

3038.0

2500.0

 

 

Calcium

mg

931.5

700.0

400.0

 

Phosphorus

mg

2407.4

550.0

 

 

Magnesium

mg

433.8

300.0

190.0

 

Iron

mg

24.7

8.7

4.7

 

Zinc

mg

16.4

9.5

5.5

 

Copper

mg

2.5

1.2

 

 

Manganese

mg

7.5

 

1.4

 

Selenium

ug

105.3

75.0

40.0

 

Iodine

ug

228.8

140.0

70.0

 

 

 

 

Item

Unit

Avg. Daily Intake

RNI

Upper Limit

Starch

g

177.7

 

 

Oligosaccharide

g

0.4

 

 

Fibre

g

31.7

30.0

 

NSP

g

25.0

 

 

Sugars

g

96.9

 

 

Free Sugars

g

2.4

 

35.8

Glucose

g

18.3

 

 

Galactose

g

0.0

 

 

Fructose

g

26.6

 

 

Sucrose

g

16.3

 

 

Maltose

g

1.1

 

 

Lactose

g

5.6

 

 

Glycaemic index

 

148.1

 

 

 

 

Item

Unit

Avg. Daily Intake

RNI

Upper Limit

Energy(Kcal)

kcal

2459.2

2866.0

 

Carbohydrate

g

275.2

358.3

 

Protein

g

186.1

62.6

 

Fat

g

68.2

 

111.5

 

 

Item

Unit

Avg. Daily Intake

Upper Limit

Water

g

4245.4

 

Water from Drinks

g

3000.0

 

Alcohol

g

0.0

20.5